If you are a franchisor, franchise broker, consultant, or industry professional and you have questions about franchise brokers and sellers, their legal role in the franchise sales process, broker registration requirements, and franchisor FDD disclosure and compliance obligations when dealing with franchise brokers and sellers, then this guide will help.
A franchise broker is an individual or organization that operates as an independent contractor that is engaged in the business of promoting, offering, or arranging for the sale of a franchise. Franchise brokers consult with prospective franchisees about franchise opportunities that may be of interest to the prospect and assist in promoting and facilitating franchise sales transactions between the franchisee prospect and a franchisor.
Franchise brokers are not employees of the franchisor but are independent contractor agents of the franchisor and are compensated by the franchisor, typically, through a contingent commission calculated as a percentage of the initial franchise fee paid by the franchisee prospect. Within the franchise industry, franchise brokers are also sometimes referred to as franchise consultants and, commonly, franchise brokers are members of umbrella trade and professional associations such as IFPG, Franchise Brokers Association, and FranNet.
Is there a difference between franchise brokers and franchise consultants? It all depends on how the intermediary (whether he or she is referred to as a broker or consultant) is compensated for recommending a franchise.
Typically, a “consultant” is hired by a franchisee prospect and is paid by the franchisee to consult and advise him or her on available franchise opportunities that are vetted and, in the consultants opinion, a good fit. In such instance the consultant is not compensated by the franchisor. On the other hand, a “broker” is paid a contingent fee by the franchisor for placing or referring a franchisee candidate who, in turn, buys a franchise.
Although there is indeed a distinction between the terms franchise broker and franchise consultant, in practice, the distinction has been blurred and the terms franchise broker and franchise consultant are used interchangeably when referring to a broker relationship. For legal reasons, and help insulate against potential liability, we recommend that franchise brokers use the term “broker” and not “consultant”, unless he or she is being compensated directly from the franchisee candidate.
The term franchise seller is a legal term that is specifically defined by federal and state franchise regulations. The term franchise seller is a broad term and while the definition of a franchise seller includes franchise brokers who are independent contractors, it goes beyond brokers and includes all individuals and businesses engaged in offering, selling, or arranging for the sale of a franchise. This means that the term franchise seller not only includes franchise brokers but, also, franchisors, the franchisor’s employees, and subfranchisors.
The Federal Franchise Rule defines a franchise seller, as follows:
Franchise seller means a person that offers for sale, sells, or arranges for the sale of a franchise. It includes the franchisor and the franchisor’s employees, representatives, agents, subfranchisors, and third-party brokers who are involved in franchise sales activities. It does not include existing franchisees who sell only their own outlet and are otherwise not engaged in franchise sales or on behalf of the franchisor.
Franchise brokers fall within the definition of franchise sellers and are therefore franchise sellers under all applicable federal and state regulation. However, not all franchise sellers are franchise brokers, i.e., the term franchise seller includes franchisors and their internal employees who are directly employed by the franchisor and are, therefore, not brokers.
A franchisor’s obligation to disclose its FDD is triggered, in part, by discussions between a franchise seller (which includes franchise brokers) and a prospective franchisee. The FTC Compliance Guide defines a “prospective franchisee” as “any person…who approaches or is approached by a franchise seller to discuss the possible establishment of a franchise relationship.” Under the Federal Rule a franchisor is required to disclose its FDD to a prospective franchisee “at least 14 calendar days before the prospective franchisee signs a binding franchise agreement with, or makes any payment to, the franchisor or an affiliate in connection with the proposed franchise sale.” However, a franchisor must provide a prospective franchisee with a copy of its FDD earlier than the 14 day period if requested by the prospective franchisee.
Within the FDD itself, Franchisors are required to disclose franchise sellers, including franchise brokers. The method of disclosure varies and is summarized, as follows:
(a) Franchisor Disclosure of Franchise Sellers – But Not Brokers – in FDD Item 2 – Franchise sellers who are directly employed by the franchisor (i.e., such as franchise sales directors) must be disclosed as a part of the franchisors management team in FDD Item 2, and all franchise sellers, including franchise brokers engaged in a particular franchise sale, must be disclosed
(b) Franchisor Disclosure of Franchise Sellers – Including Brokers – in the FDD Receipt Page – Franchise sellers, including franchise brokers engaged in a particular franchise sale, should be disclosed on the FDD receipt page disclosed and signed by the prospective franchisee. The FDD Receipt page, in particular requires disclosure of the franchise sellers and and the franchise broker for each specific franchise sales transaction. In practice this means that as to particular franchise sales transactions, the FDD Receipt page should be modified or supplemented to identify the involved franchise sellers (including franchise brokers) involved in the sale.
(c) Franchisor Inclusion of Broker Disclaimer on FDD State Cover Page – Under NASAA Franchise Registration and Disclosure Guidelines, franchisors that use the services of a franchise broker or referral source must include the following disclaimer to be located at the bottom of the State Cover Page following the risk factors:
We use the services of one or more FRANCHISE BROKERS or referral sources to assist us in selling our franchise. A franchise broker or referral source represents us, not you. We pay this person a fee for selling our franchise or referring you to us. You should be sure to do your own investigation of the franchise.
(d) Franchisor Filing of Franchise Seller Disclosure Form – Within almost all franchise registration states, franchisors are required to register and file a “Franchise Seller Disclosure Form” for each franchise seller (including franchisor employees and independent brokers) that will be soliciting, offering, or selling franchises for the franchisor within the particular state.
The Franchise Seller Disclosure Form is attached as Exhibit D as a part of the NASAA Uniform Franchise Registration Application. As stated in the instructions to the NASAA form, the Franchise Seller Disclosure Form should be completed for “…each person who may be engaged in soliciting or offering or selling the franchises for the Franchisor submitting the [FDD registration] Application. [The] form should be submitted for the franchisor’s own employees, for employees of its parents or affiliates, and for any independent third party (e.g., broker) who may be providing sales services on its behalf in each [state]…” Submission and filing of a Franchise Seller Disclosure form for each franchise seller is an on-going process and requires updates as franchise sellers are added and removed.
(e) Franchise Broker State Registration – In certain states, specifically, New York and Washington, franchise brokers are required to register with the state as a franchise broker. The following links are to the New York Franchise Broker Registration Form and to the Washington State Franchise Broker Registration Form.
Franchise sellers, including franchise brokers, are charged with certain obligations and potential liabilities under the federal and state franchise laws. The most common and important example of potential franchise seller liability under the Federal Franchise Rule relates to issues involving Item 19 financial performance representations and earnings claims where compliance obligations are not only imposed on the franchisor but, also, all franchise sellers. As an example and as stated in the FTC compliance guide:
…at the time of furnishing a disclosure document, any franchise seller (including any broker) must notify a prospective franchisee if the seller knows of any material changes relating to a financial performance representation. This obligation arises even if a disclosure document is furnished at a time that falls between quarterly updates. For example, a franchisor may prepare an annual update to its disclosure document that contains an Item 19 financial performance representation. A franchise broker may then furnish the disclosure document to a prospective franchisee on June 1… If the broker knows of a material change in information underlying the Item 19 representation…the broker must notify the the prospective franchisee of the fact when furnishing the disclosure document…
The franchise rules that prohibit financial performance representations that are not true or that are not substantiated at the time they are made, not only applies to franchisors, but also to “franchise sellers.” As an example, the FTC Compliance Guide states:
…individual franchise sellers – such as brokers – may not be liable for failing to furnish disclosure or for improperly preparing the contents of a disclosure document. Under the amended [Franchise] Rule, only the franchisor and any subfranchisor are responsible for that. Nevertheless, any seller can be held liable for the seller’s own violation of the amended Rules provisions that prohibit:
making any financial performance representations unless the franchise seller has a reasonable basis and written substantiation for the representation at the time the representation is made;
failing to include in any financial performance representation a clear and conspicuous admonition that a new franchisee’s individual financial results may differ from the results stated in the financial performance representation; or
making any financial performance representation that is not included in Item 19 of the franchisor’s disclosure document.
Beyond financial performance representations, franchise sellers, including franchise brokers, must be aware that even basic and common sense franchise obligations – such as the prohibition against providing contradictory information – applies to them and not just the franchisor. As stated in the FTC Compliance Guide:
Prohibition Against Contradictory Information
The amended Rule prohibits a franchise seller from making any statement that contradicts the information disclosed in the franchisor’s disclosure document…Prohibited contradictory statements include those made orally, visually, or in writing. For example, a franchise broker would be in violation of the amended [Franchise] Rule if it stated that the franchisor has never been sued by a franchisee, when, in fact, the franchisor has been sued and has disclosed the information in Item 3. Of course, franchise sellers are always free to disseminate additional truthful non-contradictory information to a prospective franchisee…
As a practical matter franchise sellers and, in particular, franchise brokers need to consider basic legal obligations that govern all commercial and business relationships. Franchise brokers serve an intermediary role between the prospective franchisee and the franchisor and, in this role, it is important that franchise brokers avoid actions that could be misconstrued as constituting actions of fraud, misrepresentation, breach of contract and, even, breach of a fiduciary duty to the prospective franchisee. Legal exposure issues arise when a prospective franchisee is either not informed or misinformed about the relationship between the franchise broker and the franchisor.
At a most basic level it is important that, as a franchise broker, in all of your communications with prospective franchisees that:
There are other areas of franchise seller and franchise broker legal issues and potential liability concerns that we will be discussing in future supplements of this guide.
If you are a franchisor or a franchise broker and would like additional information about laws and rules involving franchise sellers and franchise brokers call us at (800) 976-4904 or by email.
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